Glossary

Common Machining Terms

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There are currently 55 names in this directory
American-type Single-spindle Screw Machine
A lathe and a turret that work together from an axial orientation to the part.
Automatic Bar Machine
A type of machine that continuously rotates while being fed bar stock from the spindle to cut. Also referred to as a screw machine.
Axial Approach
A type of approach for a tool that is described as parallel to the axis of the part or workpiece.
Bar Stock
A term that refers to the raw material used in the Swiss Screw Machining industry, it is long bars of metal, acquired from a metal manufacturer.
Bar Stock Magazine
A chamber located on a screw machine that assists in feeding the bar stock to the screw machining process.
Boring
A process that is used to enlarge a hole through the use of a single-point tool.
Bushing
A piece on a Swiss-type single-spindle screw machine that serves as a guide for the bar stock.
Cam
A component that is often circular in shape and is responsible for converting rotational motion to linear motion. Specifically in a bar machine, the cam controls the feed rate and cut depth.
Chip
A piece of excess metal that is discarded during the screwing process, generally the result of metal cutting or grinding.
Chuck
The device that is responsible for securing a workpiece in place during the operation, as it rotates.
Chucking Machine
The term used for any machine that requires the use of a chuck to hold a part in place.
CNC Turning Center
A special type of CNC machine that concentrates on turning, boring, drilling and threading.
Collet
A component that is fitted with a specifically dimensioned hole to hold the workpiece through.
Computer Numerical Control
A computer programmable tool that uses special programs to complete machining jobs.
Cross Slide
The term that refers to the assembly of components that are responsible for holding a workpiece in position, on a lathe.
Cutoff
The process of using a cutting tool to remove the finished piece from the bar stock.
Cycle Time
The total amount of time it takes to complete one cycle and produce one part.
Depth of Cut
The total volume of bar stock that is separated during one cycle or pass of the cutting tool.
Drilling
A process that is used to generate a round hole in the surface of a part using a multi-point tool.
Drive Shaft
The machine component that is responsible for transferring power from the actuator to all the other machine components.
Engine Lathe
The most basic and simple version of lathe.
Facing
The process of moving a flat tool over the end of the workpiece to generate a flat surface, performed on the lathe.
Feed
A term that describes the motion of a cutting tool cutting into a part and separating the material.
Follower
A component that traces along the edge of a cam and transcribes the rotational motion to linear motion that is used to cut the workpiece.
Form Turning
A process that is performed on the lathe that uses a tool to impress a shape upon the workpiece.
Headstock
The component on the end of a lathe that is responsible rotating the workpiece and holding the spindle.
Horizontal Axis
The line that goes through the center of an object while also parallel to the floor.
ID Grooving
A process used to create an internal groove or channel in a pre-drilled hole.
Index
Shifting machine parts to a different location relative to the original position.
Inner-diameter Operation
Any cutting process that occurs inside a cylindrical part, on the internal surface.
Lathe
A component of a machine that is used to cut cylindrical parts, the lathe holds the workpiece while the cutting tool proceeds.
Machine Motor
The actuator that drives and supplies the main source of power, located at the bottom of the lathe.
Mechanical Safety Clutch
A device that safeguards the machine and workers by disengaging the drive shaft from the motor, allowing the motor to run freely of the machine.
Multi-point Cutting Tool
A type of tool that is used in cutting operations, consisting of several points. Most often used in drilling.
Multiple-spindle Screw Machine
An automatic bar machine that consists of multiple spindles, allowing several workpieces to be cut at once.
OD Chamfering
A process used to construct an angled edge on a workpiece, performed on a lathe.
OD Threading
A process that is used to create a spiraled ridge along the external surface of the part.
Outer-diameter Operation
A term used to refer to any cutting operation that occurs on the external surface of a cylindrical part
Radial Approach
A type of approach for a tool that is described as perpendicular to the axis of the part or workpiece.
Reaming
An operation that is used in order to smooth the internal surface of a hole, using a multi-point hole.
Screw Machine
The term used to refer to an automatic machine that continuously turns out finished parts from the bar stock. Also called the bar machine.
Setup
The total amount of time that is spent completing all tasks that are required to produce the first accurate part.
Single-point Cutting Tool
A type of tool that is used in cutting operations and only has one cutting edge.
Single-spindle Screw Machine
An automated screw machine with only one spindle which is responsible for rotating the bar stock while being cut.
Spindle
The component of a screw machine that is in charge of the rotating or spinning.
Swiss-type Single-spindle Screw Machine
A sophisticated lathe that involves a sliding headstock, fixed bushing and an automated turret.
Tailstock
A machine component that is responsible for supporting longer workpieces and is found at the end of the lathe, on the opposite end of the headstock.
Taper Turning
A process that is used to create a cone shape on a workpiece by feeding the piece at an angle.
Tapping
A process that is used to create internal threads in a part through the use of a multi-point tool piece.
Tolerance
The allowable amount that the finished product can differ from the original designs in specific dimensions.
Turning
A process that generates cylindrical parts with the use of a single-point cutting tool. The cutting tool makes passes along the piece, removing material as it goes, while the workpiece is being continuously rotated.
Turret
The part of the lathe that is solely responsible for holding the cutting tools and rotating to the correct cutting position.
Turret Lathe
A type of lathe that uses a turret to hold the cutting tool.
Vertical Turning Machine
A turning machine that is used for large and heavy parts due to its vertical rotation and the spindle is aligned perpendicular to the floor.
Workholder
A machine component that is responsible for locating and holding a workpiece in position.

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